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Two strings are anagrams of each other if they contain the same letters, possibly in a different order. For example, anagram and nagaram are anagrams of each other because they both contain three as and one each of n, g, r, and m. rat and car are not anagrams because rat has a t, while car does not.

Solution 1: Hash With Counts

By definition, we can determine whether two strings are anagrams by making a hash of their character counts, and seeing whether those hashes are equivalent in keys and values. The character-count hash for anagram would look like { 'a' => 3, 'n' => 1, 'g' => 1, 'r' => 1, 'm' => 1 }.

One simple optimization we can make is to return false if the two strings are not the same length — by definition, they could never be anagrams of each other.

def character_count_hash(string)
  character_counts = Hash.new(0)
  string.each_char { |c| character_counts[c] += 1 }
  character_counts
end

def is_anagram(s, t)
  return false unless s.length == t.length
  character_count_hash(s) == character_count_hash(t)
end

Runtime: If we assume all operations on Hashes run in constant time, then this algorithm runs in O(s + t) (where s and t are the lengths of the respective strings), since character_count_hash loops through each character in s, and then t, and performs constant work in each case. This remains true if Hash equality is implemented as a loop through all the keys in each hash.

Memory: This solution requires storing an additional hash for each string. In the worst case, no characters are repeated, which means each hash contains as many key-value pairs as there are letters. Assuming each key-value pair takes up a constant amount of storage (a letter for the key and an integer for the value), the storage requirement would also be O(s + t).

Follow up

Since Ruby strings are Unicode-safe, no additional work is required to adapt this solution to Unicode characters.